The Animal Industry Board is specifically charged with protecting the health of the animal industry of South Dakota under SDCL 40-3. Every aspect of our activities in regulatory operations takes into account this responsibility. Certain diseases, such as brucellosis, tuberculosis, pseudorabies, pullorum, etc, have control and eradication programs. Other diseases are monitored for threats to the various industries. Requirements for inspections, identification, facilities, licensing, testing programs, and others constantly weigh the risk that a threat may present versus the benefits of regulations to the industries and the people of South Dakota.
All states are now free of Brucellosis in domestic cattle herds.
Buffalo and Elk in the Greater Yellowstone Area remain a reservoir of infection and present risk to the cattle industry. Each case of Brucellosis comes with far reaching impacts and tremendous costs in terms of movement restrictions, testing requirements, indemnities, and epidemiology.
CATTLE SCAB (Scabies)
Cattle scab remains a reportable disease in South Dakota, but we have had no diagnosis in the past few years. The high use of injectable parasiticides by the industry seems to have reduced the threat of movement of the mite from the south where the threat is the greatest. South Dakota still requires effective scab treatment on cattle imported from Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, and California.
South Dakota has maintained ‘TB Free’ status by the United States Department of Agriculture continuously since 1982.
The South Dakota Animal Industry Board maintains the import requirement that all in-tact dairy cattle must be negative to an official TB test within 60 days prior to entering South Dakota.
Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy surfaced in Great Britain in 1986. Sometimes referred to as "mad cow disease", this is a chronic degenerative disease of the central nervous system. There is no test for BSE on live cattle. In March of 1996, a Scientific Advisory Committee on BSE in Great Britain reported a possible link between BSE in cattle and certain cases of "CJD", a chronic degenerative central nervous disease in humans. This syndrome in humans is referred to as new variant CJD.
In response to this the United States attempted to eliminate all British origin cattle that had been imported prior to the ban that had been placed on imports in 1989. South Dakota had one such animal. This animal was eliminated through purchase, incineration, and lab testing for BSE with the use of Livestock Disease Emergency Funds.
BSE continues to be a grave concern to the cattle industry. Variant CJD, linked to BSE, has been detected in over 100 people in Europe. On June 5, 1997, the Food and Drug Administration published in the Code of Federal Regulations increased record keeping requirements and strict prohibition against feeding ruminant derived proteins to ruminants. This regulation became effective on October 4, 1997. Board veterinarians now require a form to be filled out by rendering establishments assuring that this regulation is complied with. Dr. Holland has been active in national organizations and efforts to exclude the importation of this disease agent into the United States. BSE has been devastating to the beef and dairy industry in every country where it has occurred. (SEE FACT SHEET ON BSE)
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After decades of very low incidence of anthrax in South Dakota, in 2005 the industry experienced the most serious anthrax outbreak in recent history. Between July 21 and mid-November 2005 there were fifty-five (55) herds confirmed with losses from anthrax. In addition to the direct losses from death of cattle and buffalo, the expenses of burning, burying, cleaning and disinfecting, and other indirect costs to affected herd owners were substantial. Thankfully, with media attention, news releases, producer meetings, and other awareness efforts by Board personnel and practicing veterinarians, over 1 million cattle were vaccinated in the heat of the summer during the outbreak and this effort no doubt saved a considerable amount of further loss.
Producers and veterinarians are reminded that we are in the “anthrax belt”, and that vaccination for anthrax should be part of routine health programs.
The State Veterinarian reported that he felt the extremely hot weather combined with low water levels in dams, creeks, and the Oahe Reservoir led to many of the cases in central South Dakota. Additionally, there was some spring flooding that occurred in the northeastern part of the state that probably led to increased cases as temperatures rose and water receded. There were three (3) cases of anthrax in FY 2007 (two (2) cases during the summer of 2006 and one case in April of 2007).
During the period from June 18, 2010 to June 17, 2011, there were 923 lab submissions for Johne’s testing reported to the South Dakota Animal Industry Board. These submissions included samples from 25,853 South Dakota cattle. Positive animals continue to be identified (1,019 samples / 3.9%).
The revised and updated Uniform Program Standards for the Voluntary Bovine Johne’s Disease Control Program developed by USDA and the US Animal Health Association went into effect on September 1, 2010. The purpose behind the revisions is to improve the accuracy of herd classification and to provide a system that is easier to understand and follow.
The most significant change is the new six-level herd classification system (Levels 1-6). Herd classification under the new system is based on test type, test results, and herd size, and takes statistical probabilities into consideration.
The new classification system allows herds with low prevalence to participate in the herd classification component and also allows for the use of new testing strategies (pooled fecal culture, direct PCR, milk ELISA). In this system, the higher the classification level, the lower the risk of that herd transmitting Johne’s Disease. Herds with a current Johne’s disease certification status in the old program were evaluated and grandfathered into the new system with a current classification level.
Anaplasmosis is a disease that causes problems for a few producers each year. Most cases are diagnosed in the western part of the state. Cases are commonly related to exposure to or in animals that have been imported to South Dakota from southern states. When a case is reported, the owner is visited by a Board veterinarian to discuss risks and mitigation measures for the anaplasmosis.
Memories are still vivid of the FMD outbreak in the UK on February 20, 2001. Over 9 percent of the national food animal production was destroyed and burned or buried. It took many responders and a lot of money to eradicate this disease in the UK in eleven (11) months.
The threat of another outbreak occurs daily with the vast movement of products and people worldwide. Foot and Mouth Disease continues to infect livestock in a number of countries:
Serotype Asia 1: China, Russia, and Mongolia
Serotype O: Southern Brazil and Northern Argentina
Serotype A: Middle East, Vietnam, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines, Hong Kong
Serotype C: Kenya, Botswana
Security at the ports, borders, and mail systems continue to be tested and reinforced to minimize the possible incursion of this disease. Safety of the food supply continues to command attention by producers, shippers, and manufacturers. At practically all levels of the live-animal portion of food security, producers hear about biosecurity, record keeping, and animal identification.
Educational venues continue to be available to all producers to participate in and learn about Preparedness and Response to Agricultural Terrorism. We hope the animal producers continue to be aware of the role they play in being vigilant to the signs of a developing disease. The first report is where the response starts.
A Foot and Mouth Disease Contingency Annex is included in the Animal Health Emergency Plan which is included in the South Dakota Emergency Response Plan.
Foot and Mouth Disease Information
Vesicular Stomatitis (VS) has not been diagnosed in South Dakota in recent years. However, there have been cases of VS reported in 2005 in Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, and Colorado.
South Dakota put increased restrictions on livestock imported from affected states during past outbreaks and fortunately avoided the serious costs of this disease. All ruminants and horses imported from affected states must have a permit from the SD Animal Industry Board along with their Certificate of Veterinary Inspection (health certificate), which must include the following statement:
“The animal (s) represented on this health certificate have not originated from a premises or area under quarantine for Vesicular Stomatitis, and none are known exposed to Vesicular Stomatitis. I have examined the animals and have found no signs of Vesicular Stomatitis."
While VS causes little mortality, the symptoms are similar to Foot and Mouth Disease and the virus is highly contagious. The diagnosis of the disease leads to serious marketing, movement, and exporting barriers to the livestock industry of affected states. Any suspicious cases shall be reported to this office to be checked by regulatory veterinarians.
After years of reporting only an occasional case of trichomoniasis, South Dakota confirmed forty-five (45) cases during the FY 2005 breeding season (all west of the Missouri River).
As this disease is known to be endemic in states to the west and south, the risks of further cases and losses were explained to producers through numerous public meetings.
Following beef and dairy industry input and a public hearing, regulations for controlling trichomoniasis were promulgated and became effective June 1, 2005.
Producer cooperation, market cooperation, and veterinary practitioners’ cooperation and testing appears to be very beneficial. Reported trichomoniasis cases are as follows:
FY 2005 45 cases
FY 2006 9 cases
FY 2007 10 cases
FY 2008 7 cases
FY 2009 13 cases
FY 2010 6 cases
FY 2011 5 cases
FY 2012 1 case
Montana has enacted trichomoniasis rules similar to South Dakota’s. Nebraska has enacted only import regulations for trich and has not implemented an intrastate control plan.
OTHER CATTLE DISEASES
Blackleg, Leptospirosis, Leukosis, Vibriosis, IBR, BVD, BRSV, Pasturellosis, Pinkeye, Mastitis, and Calf Scours continue to be problems for South Dakota producers. BVD (bovine viral diarrhea) is a very complex disease and new research surfaces annually altering the way this disease is controlled.
Practicing veterinarians and the producers continue to do an effective job of controlling these diseases without government assistance.
The program for eradication of PRV remains successful. South Dakota was granted Stage V-Free status on April 16, 2003.
As of October 31, 2004, all fifty states, Puerto Rico and US Virgin Islands had achieved Stage V-Free Status.
In April of 2003, we could state that PRV had been eradicated from the USA’s domestic swine herds. There continues, however, to be PRV infection in the USA’s feral swine. Feral swine remain a real threat in re-introducing PRV infection into our domestic swine. Because of this, PRV surveillance testing will continue to be an important tool to see that PRV does not get re-introduced into our domestic swine. As of April 1, 2005, PRV had been disclosed in four (4) (1-AZ, 3-LA) transitional feral swine herds (known exposure to feral swine) in the US. Nationally, during 2004, PRV was disclosed in eight (8) transitional swine herds that had known exposure to feral swine. These eight (8) herds were either destroyed or quarantined, tested and positives removed.
South Dakota remains a Validated Brucellosis-Free Area. This status is maintained by the testing of blood samples from boars and sows at slaughter.
PORCINE REPRODUCTIVE AND RESPIRATORY SYNDROME (PRRS)
There continues to be no state regulations addressing the disease of swine.
Currently four (4) herds are voluntarily participating in the PRRS
Lab reports indicate frequent herd testing both for management considerations, purchase and sale considerations, and for disease diagnostic determinations. The Animal Disease Research and Diagnostics Laboratory Animal Report 2006 shows 73,882 PRRS ELISA tests were conducted by their Serology Section.
Swine tuberculosis continues to be a decreasing cause of condemnation of swine carcasses in packing plants. Market swine identification has enabled the packing plants to trace some of these condemnations back to the farm of origin. We have contacted these owners, when we have been notified, and encouraged them to clean up the problem. The decline of poultry on diversified farms has reduced the disease in swine, but it has not been eliminated in South Dakota. The swine industry is changing dramatically and management changes are effectively eliminating this disease problem in swine. We have had no reported cases of swine tuberculosis in the past few years.
OTHER SWINE DISEASES
Many other diseases such as Erysipelas, Swine Dysentery, Parvovirus, Porcine Circovirus Associated Disease (PCAD), TGE, Ileitis, Pneumonia, and Atrophic Rhinitis continue to be addressed by the swine industry.
These diseases are effectively handled by the producer and practicing
veterinarians. The Animal Industry Board continues a good working
relationship with the swine industry. The PRV Eradication Committee has
been changed to a Swine Health Committee of the South Dakota Pork Producers
Council. This committee provides a vehicle for ongoing dialogue with the
The Ram Epidiymitis Control Program continues for sheep producers in South Dakota.
All slaughter rams are to be identified with a paint brand and allowed to be sold to slaughter untested for Brucella ovis. Regulations remain in effect stating all rams 6 months of age and older must be test-negative for Brucella ovis prior to sale for any purpose other than immediate slaughter. The testing applies for both interstate and intrastate movement of rams.
Testing in South Dakota continues to indicate there is not a high incidence of the disease in the state.
There were six (6) RSSS (Regulatory Scrapie Slaughter Surveillance) animals of South Dakota origin in FY 2007. Four (4) of these flocks were successfully traced, genetically tested, and low resistant animals were removed. One (1) trace was to a dealer which did not have sufficient records to complete an investigation, and another trace was to a producer who had sold his flock and had destroyed his records.
South Dakota received trace-in animals from Minnesota, Colorado, Iowa, and Michigan. All of these animals were either tested and found to be genetically resistant, or had been shipped to slaughter.
South Dakota had two trace-outs. The first was originally a trace-in from Minnesota to a South Dakota flock that had moved from South Dakota to Wyoming. The second was a trace-in from Minnesota to a flock in South Dakota that leased sheep to a North Dakota flock.
A Cooperative Federal-State Program to asist flock owners in testing rams and ram lambs for genetic resistance to scrapie is again available to South Dakota sheep producers on a first come, first served basis. Effective date of eligibility is August 5, 2010. Any flocks / animals tested before this date, are not eligible for reimbursement during this funding cycle. For more information on the program follow the link below.
Some flocks are enrolled in the high-risk flock plan that have retained high-risk genetically-tested animals. These flocks are required to test offspring for five (5) years that will be sold as breeding animals or remain in the flocks as breeding animals. They will also follow the Voluntary Flock Certification Program for Scrapie. Animals need to be officially identified over one year of age, all animals over eighteen (18) months of age that die are required to have the brains tested for scrapie, and records will be kept on all animals in the flock.
The identification of sheep being sold in South Dakota is working well at this time. Cull animals and breeding animals are required to be officially identified with a USDA scrapie tag.
EQUINE INFECTIOUS ANEMIA (EIA)
A negative EIA test is required on horses imported into South Dakota. The state of North Dakota has entered into an agreement with South Dakota to waive EIA testing for movement between these states. South Dakota reported 10,034 horses tested for EIA in the past 12 months, with no positive cases. The EIA testing program can be costly but it is important. Many states are moving toward intrastate movement testing requirements for this disease. Additionally, a national control program is being considered which would base equine movement requirements on regional/state risk of EIA.
The South Dakota Animal Industry Board is addressing concerns from the equine breeding industry regarding a recent outbreak of Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA) in New Mexico and Utah. To aid the industry in preventing the disease, the SDAIB will maintain test and vaccination records in the Pierre office. Should questions arise as to the vaccination status of a stallion, veterinarians and producers are encouraged to verify this information with the Animal Industry Board.
Potomac Horse Fever is sporadically found in South Dakota. A single case was reported in South Dakota in FY 2008. It should be considered when horses present with diarrhea and depression. A vaccine is available and is used heavily in endemic areas of the United States. PHF is a reportable disease in South Dakota.
There are reported cases of equine encephalitis in South Dakota nearly every year. An effective vaccination program continues to control the disease. Horse owners are urged to be aware and take precautions by vaccinating all susceptible horses.
Neurologic Herpesvirus was reported in two horses in Pennington County, and suspected in several other west river horses. The incidence of the neurologic form of herpes in horses seems to be increasing nation-wide. Race tracks in Florida, Maryland, Ohio, and Kentucky have experienced EHV-type 1 outbreaks with increased incidence of neurologic signs. Routine vaccination is recommended, especially for horses which are traveling or are commingled with other horses.
WEST NILE VIRUS (WNV) has become established in all states except Alaska and Hawaii. Equine WNV was not reported in South Dakota during FY 2007 (July 1, 2006 through June 30, 2007.) 8 equine cases have been reported in South Dakota during the 2007 vector season.
South Dakota is a Pullorum-Typhoid Clean State. Annual testing is conducted at each poultry hatchery to validate the Pullorum Clean flock status.
Turkey production in South Dakota continues to expand. A new turkey processing facility opened in Huron in January 2006. The facility is anticipating a slaughter capacity near 8 million per year in 2008.
The Eastern Hemisphere is experiencing an Avian Influenza outbreak. Not only is this avian influenza affecting wild and domestic birds but it is a serotype (H5N1) that could change genetically to be able to cause human to human disease. First identified to have killed a human in China in 1996, currently 130 human deaths have been caused by the H5N1 strain of avian influenza in nine (9) countries.
A detailed response and containment plan was developed for H5/H7 Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (LPAI). This plan was a pre-requisite for receiving 100% indemnity funds from USDA should poultry in South Dakota need to be destroyed due to an avian influenza viral incursion.
A surveillance project to sample all aspects of poultry production in South Dakota is developing and will begin in FY 2007.
Wild birds were identified with West Nile Virus in FY 2006. Poultry (geese) were affected in a production site in northeastern South Dakota.
From records of the National Poultry Improvement Program (NPIP) and poultry importation files, there were 8,017,859 poultry imported in the past year. Turkeys are the primary species imported (6,407,914 birds).
The following is an explanation of different types of hatchery permits
issued. This information is taken from the annual application for hatchery
Hatchery: Have incubators and hatch eggs.
Chick Store: Take possession of some or all of the chicks they sell.
Chick Sales: Maintain an office to write chick orders. Do not take possession of the chicks.
Rabies in the wildlife population remains at a high level. Skunks are the
reservoir of the disease and they represent the largest number of positive
diagnoses at the laboratory. Bats have also been recognized as a
significant reservoir of rabies. Recommendations include post-exposure
treatment for humans after certain experiences with bats, even in the
absence of known bite wounds! There are also reports of positive samples in
the domestic animal population each month.
The breakdown of animals reported positive from June 1, 2008, through May 31, 2009, is as follows:
Skunks - 25
Bats - 3
Equine - 1
Bovine - 2
Feline - 1
For FY 2009, thirty-two (32) animals were reported infected with rabies, compared to twenty-nine (29) in FY 2008, twenty-five (25) in FY 2007; fifty-three (53) in FY 2006; eighty (80) in FY 2005; one hundred five (105) in FY 2004.
Vaccination in dogs and cats helps keep the disease at a low level in the
There is no approved vaccine available for use in nondomestic animals that are kept as pets, with the exception of ferrets. Rabies vaccine approved for use in ferrets over 3 months of age provides duration of immunity for one year.
The AIB implemented the following rules regarding rabies effective June 1, 2005.
12:68:06:09. Additional information to be contained in health certificate for imported cats and dogs. Any cat or dog imported into South Dakota must be accompanied by a health certificate as described in SDCL 40-14-2 issued by a state or federal government veterinary official of the originating state or by a licensed veterinarian. The certificate must state that the animal has not been exposed to rabies, that it is free from signs of any contagious or communicable disease, that it has been currently vaccinated for rabies by a licensed veterinarian, the date of vaccination, the type of vaccine used, and the date the animal is due for boostering for rabies immunization.
Chronic Wasting Disease was not identified in the farmed cervid herds in the state in FY 2011. CWD testing of eligible animals from the farmed cervid industry in SD in FY 2011 totaled 391 animals. Since late 1997, a total of 6,003 farmed cervids have been tested for CWD in South Dakota.
Since CWD was identified in farmed cervids in SD in late 1997 and a broad and strict CWD Surveillance program was implemented in 1998, the continued negative test results compliment the excellent surveillance program and the cooperation of the cervid industry in SD.
The cervid industry continues to experience contraction. Marketing opportunities currently are limited to sales of meat products, sale of “hunt” bulls, and a sporadic market for antler velvet (pilose).
As of June 15, 2011 there have been 23,220 wild cervids sampled for CWD in South Dakota with 173 positive results.
Effective January 1, 2012, USDA-APHIS is no longer funding lab costs for CWD testing. All costs for captive cervid testing are currently borne by producers.