Pullorum-Typhoid (P-T) is a disease caused by a Salmonella species that infects chickens, turkeys, and other types of poultry. It is egg-transmitted and can produce high death loss in hatchlings and young birds.
Birds that survive a P-T infection are usually carriers for life and source of the disease for other birds.
P-T has been nearly eliminated from poultry flocks in the United States because of the National Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP). Blood-testing potential breeding birds and culling infected birds are required to eradicate this disease. Breeders that test negative produce non-infected hatching eggs, chicks and poults.
South Dakota is a Pullorum-Typhoid Clean State. Annual testing is conducted at each poultry hatchery to validate the Pullorum Clean flock status.
Avian influenza viruses are highly contagious, extremely variable viruses that are widespread in birds. Wild birds in aquatic habitats are the natural reservoir hosts, but domesticated poultry are readily infected.
Most viruses cause only mild disease in poultry, and are called low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses. Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses can develop from certain LPAI viruses, usually while they are circulating in avian populations.
HPAI viruses can cause 90-100% mortality in infected flocks, and cause epidemics that may spread rapidly, devastate the poultry industry and result in severe trade restrictions. Trade restrictions also result from infection of poultry with LPAI viruses.
Avian influenza viruses occasionally affect mammals, including humans, usually after close contact with infected poultry.
The Animal Industry Board continues to work together with South Dakota's poultry industry and other state and federal agencies to prepare for and respond to introductions of influenza in poultry. The AIB also works cooperatively with the commercial poultry industries of SD to maintain an Avian Influenza surveillance program.
The National Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP) is a cooperative Federal-State-Industry program established in 1935 to eradicate Pullorum-Typhoid Disease. Since its inception the program has expanded to incorporate new diagnostic technology and effectively improve poultry and poultry products throughout the country.
As a result many egg-transmitted, hatchery-disseminated poultry diseases have been eradicated or controlled.
NPIP participants include hatcheries, breeding flocks, poultry dealers, processing plants and even states that meet disease control standards. Being a NPIP participant allows greater ease in moving hatching eggs and live birds within the state, across state lines, and to other countries.
The Animal Industry Board serves as the Official State Agency for the administration and oversight of NPIP programs in South Dakota. This includes interstate commerce, import/export, disease surveillance, testing, permitting, and disease response plan activities.
Samples collected to meet test requirements for State or National Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP) programs must be collected by individuals trained and certified as authorized poultry testing agents (APTA) or licensed and accredited veterinarians. APTAs are individuals who have been trained by the AIB to test poultry for Pullorum-Typhoid (P-T) using the rapid whole blood test.
Testing agents have also been trained to collect samples for other poultry program disease testing.
To become certified as an APTA, interested individuals are required to participate in a one-day training session. Authorizations are valid for five years.
To find an APTA in your area or for more information on training, please contact the AIB via phone at 605.773.3321 or by sending an email to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Hatcheries, breeding flock facilities, and chick sales/stores in South Dakota are required to be permitted with the AIB. Steps to obtain or renew a permit are outlined below:
When all the requirements have been met and the operation has been approved, a permit will be issued which can be used at community sales and exhibitions to assure customers, managers, and other participants that poultry are tested and healthy according to State standards. Permitted hatcheries, breeding flock facilities, and chick sales/stores also qualify to be NPIP participants.